Art of the Quarter

1800 Continued

1800 was a century when more of the accomplishments of African Americans are documented. This month will focus on more African Americans and their lives.

Bert Williams

Bert Williams was a Bahamian-born American entertainer, one of the pre-eminent entertainers of the Vaudeville era and one of the most popular comedians for all audiences of his time. He was born in the Bahamas in November of 1874.  He is credited as being the first Black man to have the leading role in a film: Darktown Jubilee in 1914. Known as one of the highest paid African American performers in history, Williams worked in many productions including the Ziegfeld Follies of 1917 with WC Fields, Fannie Brice, Eddie Cantor and more. In 1922 Williams collapsed on stage during a performance in Detroit, Michigan. He returned to New York and died at his home in March at the age of 47.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bert_Williams

Hattie McDaniel

Hattie McDaniel was an American actress, singer-songwriter, and comedian born Kansas in 1893. She started working in minstrel shows and worked her way into radio. She wrote songs and sang for a record company before her big break came. In 1931 she moved to LA and later got a role in I’m No Angel with Mae West. The success of this movie helped her gain other roles. For her role as Mammy in Gone with the Wind, she won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress, becoming the first African American to win an Oscar. McDaniel worked in over 300 films but was only credited in 83. She died in October of 1952 at the age of 59.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hattie_McDaniel

Buffalo Soldiers

Buffalo Soldiers originally were members of the 10th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army, formed on September 21, 1866, at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. This nickname was given to the Black Cavalry[1] by Native American tribes who fought in the Indian Wars. The term eventually became synonymous with all of the African-American regiments formed in 1866:

  • 9th Cavalry Regiment
  • 10th Cavalry Regiment
  • 24th Infantry Regiment
  • 25th Infantry Regiment
  • Second 38th Infantry Regiment

Although several African-American regiments were raised during the Civil War as part of the Union Army (including the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry and the many United States Colored Troops Regiments), the “Buffalo Soldiers” were established by Congress as the first peacetime all-black regiments in the regular U.S. Army.[2] 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buffalo_Soldier

Madam CJ Walker

Madam C.J. Walker was an African American entrepreneur, philanthropist, and political and social activist. She is recorded as the first female self-made millionaire in America in the Guinness Book of World Records. She was born Sarah Breedlove in December 23, 1867 in Delta, Louisiana. Walker made her fortune by developing and marketing a line of cosmetics and hair care products for black women through the business she founded, Madam C. J. Walker Manufacturing Company. She became known also for her philanthropy and activism. She made financial donations to numerous organizations such as the NAACP, and became a patron of the arts. 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madam_C._J._Walker

Art of the Month

1800 Continued

1800 was a century when more of the accomplishments of African Americans are documented. This month will focus on more African Americans and their lives.

Bert Williams

Bert Williams was a Bahamian-born American entertainer, one of the pre-eminent entertainers of the Vaudeville era and one of the most popular comedians for all audiences of his time. He was born in the Bahamas in November of 1874.  He is credited as being the first Black man to have the leading role in a film: Darktown Jubilee in 1914. Known as one of the highest paid African American performers in history, Williams worked in many productions including the Ziegfeld Follies of 1917 with WC Fields, Fannie Brice, Eddie Cantor and more. In 1922 Williams collapsed on stage during a performance in Detroit, Michigan. He returned to New York and died at his home in March at the age of 47.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bert_Williams

Hattie McDaniel

Hattie McDaniel was an American actress, singer-songwriter, and comedian born Kansas in 1893. She started working in minstrel shows and worked her way into radio. She wrote songs and sang for a record company before her big break came. In 1931 she moved to LA and later got a role in I’m No Angel with Mae West. The success of this movie helped her gain other roles. For her role as Mammy in Gone with the Wind, she won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress, becoming the first African American to win an Oscar. McDaniel worked in over 300 films but was only credited in 83. She died in October of 1952 at the age of 59.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hattie_McDaniel

Buffalo Soldiers

Buffalo Soldiers originally were members of the 10th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army, formed on September 21, 1866, at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. This nickname was given to the Black Cavalry[1] by Native American tribes who fought in the Indian Wars. The term eventually became synonymous with all of the African-American regiments formed in 1866:

  • 9th Cavalry Regiment
  • 10th Cavalry Regiment
  • 24th Infantry Regiment
  • 25th Infantry Regiment
  • Second 38th Infantry Regiment

Although several African-American regiments were raised during the Civil War as part of the Union Army (including the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry and the many United States Colored Troops Regiments), the “Buffalo Soldiers” were established by Congress as the first peacetime all-black regiments in the regular U.S. Army.[2] 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buffalo_Soldier

Art of the Quarter

1800 Continued

1800 was a century when more of the accomplishments of African Americans are documented. This month will focus on more African Americans and their lives.

Bert Williams

Bert Williams was a Bahamian-born American entertainer, one of the pre-eminent entertainers of the Vaudeville era and one of the most popular comedians for all audiences of his time. He was born in the Bahamas in November of 1874.  He is credited as being the first Black man to have the leading role in a film: Darktown Jubilee in 1914. Known as one of the highest paid African American performers in history, Williams worked in many productions including the Ziegfeld Follies of 1917 with WC Fields, Fannie Brice, Eddie Cantor and more. In 1922 Williams collapsed on stage during a performance in Detroit, Michigan. He returned to New York and died at his home in March at the age of 47.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bert_Williams

Hattie McDaniel

Hattie McDaniel was an American actress, singer-songwriter, and comedian born Kansas in 1893. She started working in minstrel shows and worked her way into radio. She wrote songs and sang for a record company before her big break came. In 1931 she moved to LA and later got a role in I’m No Angel with Mae West. The success of this movie helped her gain other roles. For her role as Mammy in Gone with the Wind, she won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress, becoming the first African American to win an Oscar. McDaniel worked in over 300 films but was only credited in 83. She died in October of 1952 at the age of 59.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hattie_McDaniel

Art of the Quarter

1800

Nat Turner

Nat was born in October in 1800 in South Hampton County Virginia. He learned to read and write at a young age, grew up reading the Bible.  Later he began to preach to African Americans, with some of the Anglos also following him. He had the trust of many and was given permission to travel the area and preach to the enslaved around the county.

In August 1831 Nat led enslaved Virginians in rebellion in in South Hampton County Virginia where they killed around 65 people, mostly Caucasian. It lasted four days before it fell apart. A militia was sent to stop it. They killed more than 120 African Americans, some who had nothing to do with the rebellion.

Nat escaped for about 9 weeks until he was caught, tried and convicted. His story was written by the person who was supposed to defend him.  The author had little understanding of Nat’s situation as an enslaved person. He made Nat seem like a fanatic instead of a man held captive all of his life asked to preach the gospel of a sould freeing God.

American Civil War

Triggered by the election of Abraham Lincoln on his party’s platform of anti-slavery expansion, seven slave states succeeded from the union. The slave states did not want the free states to end slavery which was the main portion of their economy. The free labor made them some of the richest people in the world and it was threated.  Fighting started in April of 1861 when the southern slave states started at Fort Sumpter in South Carolina.  Most of the battles were fought in the south, which was the largest part of the territory at that time. The southern slave states surrendered 1865

Alexander Dumas

Alexandre Dumas was born Dumas Davy de la Pailleterie , 24 July 1802 – 5 December 1870), also known as Alexandre Dumas père (where père is French for ‘father’, to distinguish him from his son Alexandre Dumas fils), was a French writer. His works have been translated into many languages and he is one of the most widely read French authors. Many of his historical novels of high adventure were originally published as serials, including The Count of Monte CristoThe Three MusketeersTwenty Years After and The Vicomte of Bragelonne: Ten Years Later.

Prolific in several genres, Dumas began his career by writing plays, which were successfully produced from the first. 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexandre_Dumas

Sissieretta Jones

Matilda Sissieretta Joyner Jones (January 5, 1868 or 1869 – June 24, 1933) was an American soprano. She sometimes was called “The Black Patti” in reference to Italian opera singer Adelina Patti. Jones’ repertoire included grand opera, light opera, and popular music. Trained at the Providence Academy of Music and the New England Conservatory of Music, Jones made her New York debut in 1888 at Steinway Hall, and four years later she performed at the White House for President Benjamin Harrison. She eventually sang for four consecutive presidents and the British royal family, and met with international success. Besides the United States and the West Indies, Jones toured in South America, Australia, India, southern Africa, and Europe.

The highest-paid African-American performer of her time, later in her career she founded the Black Patti Troubadours (later renamed the Black Patti Musical Comedy Company), a musical and acrobatic act made up of 40 jugglers, comedians, dancers and a chorus of 40 trained singers.[2] She remained the star of the Famous Troubadours for around two decades while they established their popularity in the principal cities of the United States and Canada, Jones retired from performing in 1915.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sissieretta_Jones

Ira Aldridge

Ira Frederick Aldridge (July 24, 1807 – August 7, 1867) was an American-born British actor, playwright, and theatre manager, known for his portrayal of Shakespearean characters. Born in New York City, Aldridge’s first professional acting experience was in the early 1820s with the African Grove Theatre troupe. Facing discrimination in America, he left in 1824 for England and made his debut at London’s Royal Coburg Theatre. As his career grew, his performances of Shakespeare’s classics eventually met with critical acclaim and he subsequently became the manager of Coventry’s Theatre Royal. From 1852, Aldridge regularly toured much of Continental Europe and received top honours from several heads of state. He died suddenly while on tour in Poland and is buried in Łódź.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ira_Aldridge

Bass Reeves

Bass Reeves (July 1838 – January 12, 1910) was an American law enforcement official, historically noted as the first black deputy U.S. marshal west of the Mississippi River. He worked mostly in Arkansas and the Oklahoma Territory.[a] During his long career, he had on his record more than 3,000 arrests of dangerous criminals, and shot and killed 14 of them in self-defense.

Art of the Month

1800

Nat Turner

Nat was born in October in 1800 in South Hampton County Virginia. He learned to read and write at a young age, grew up reading the Bible.  Later he began to preach to African Americans, with some of the Anglos also following him. He had the trust of many and was given permission to travel the area and preach to the enslaved around the county.

In August 1831 Nat led enslaved Virginians in rebellion in in South Hampton County Virginia where they killed around 65 people, mostly Caucasian. It lasted four days before it fell apart. A militia was sent to stop it. They killed more than 120 African Americans, some who had nothing to do with the rebellion.

Nat escaped for about 9 weeks until he was caught, tried and convicted. His story was written by the person who was supposed to defend him.  The author had little understanding of Nat’s situation as an enslaved person. He made Nat seem like a fanatic instead of a man held captive all of his life asked to preach the gospel of a sould freeing God.

American Civil War

Triggered by the election of Abraham Lincoln on his party’s platform of anti-slavery expansion, seven slave states succeeded from the union. The slave states did not want the free states to end slavery which was the main portion of their economy. The free labor made them some of the richest people in the world and it was threated.  Fighting started in April of 1861 when the southern slave states started at Fort Sumpter in South Carolina.  Most of the battles were fought in the south, which was the largest part of the territory at that time. The southern slave states surrendered 1865

Alexander Dumas

Alexandre Dumas was born Dumas Davy de la Pailleterie , 24 July 1802 – 5 December 1870), also known as Alexandre Dumas père (where père is French for ‘father’, to distinguish him from his son Alexandre Dumas fils), was a French writer. His works have been translated into many languages and he is one of the most widely read French authors. Many of his historical novels of high adventure were originally published as serials, including The Count of Monte CristoThe Three MusketeersTwenty Years After and The Vicomte of Bragelonne: Ten Years Later.

Prolific in several genres, Dumas began his career by writing plays, which were successfully produced from the first. 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexandre_Dumas

Sissieretta Jones

Matilda Sissieretta Joyner Jones (January 5, 1868 or 1869 – June 24, 1933) was an American soprano. She sometimes was called “The Black Patti” in reference to Italian opera singer Adelina Patti. Jones’ repertoire included grand opera, light opera, and popular music. Trained at the Providence Academy of Music and the New England Conservatory of Music, Jones made her New York debut in 1888 at Steinway Hall, and four years later she performed at the White House for President Benjamin Harrison. She eventually sang for four consecutive presidents and the British royal family, and met with international success. Besides the United States and the West Indies, Jones toured in South America, Australia, India, southern Africa, and Europe.

The highest-paid African-American performer of her time, later in her career she founded the Black Patti Troubadours (later renamed the Black Patti Musical Comedy Company), a musical and acrobatic act made up of 40 jugglers, comedians, dancers and a chorus of 40 trained singers.[2] She remained the star of the Famous Troubadours for around two decades while they established their popularity in the principal cities of the United States and Canada, Jones retired from performing in 1915.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sissieretta_Jones

Ira Aldridge

Ira Frederick Aldridge (July 24, 1807 – August 7, 1867) was an American-born British actor, playwright, and theatre manager, known for his portrayal of Shakespearean characters. Born in New York City, Aldridge’s first professional acting experience was in the early 1820s with the African Grove Theatre troupe. Facing discrimination in America, he left in 1824 for England and made his debut at London’s Royal Coburg Theatre. As his career grew, his performances of Shakespeare’s classics eventually met with critical acclaim and he subsequently became the manager of Coventry’s Theatre Royal. From 1852, Aldridge regularly toured much of Continental Europe and received top honours from several heads of state. He died suddenly while on tour in Poland and is buried in Łódź.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ira_Aldridge

Bass Reeves

Bass Reeves (July 1838 – January 12, 1910) was an American law enforcement official, historically noted as the first black deputy U.S. marshal west of the Mississippi River. He worked mostly in Arkansas and the Oklahoma Territory.[a] During his long career, he had on his record more than 3,000 arrests of dangerous criminals, and shot and killed 14 of them in self-defense.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bass_Reeves

Art of the Quarter

1800

Nat Turner

Nat was born in October in 1800 in South Hampton County Virginia. He learned to read and write at a young age, grew up reading the Bible.  Later he began to preach to African Americans, with some of the Anglos also following him. He had the trust of many and was given permission to travel the area and preach to the enslaved around the county.

In August 1831 Nat led enslaved Virginians in rebellion in in South Hampton County Virginia where they killed around 65 people, mostly Caucasian. It lasted four days before it fell apart. A militia was sent to stop it. They killed more than 120 African Americans, some who had nothing to do with the rebellion.

Nat escaped for about 9 weeks until he was caught, tried and convicted. His story was written by the person who was supposed to defend him.  The author had little understanding of Nat’s situation as an enslaved person. He made Nat seem like a fanatic instead of a man held captive all of his life asked to preach the gospel of a sould freeing God.

American Civil War

Triggered by the election of Abraham Lincoln on his party’s platform of anti-slavery expansion, seven slave states succeeded from the union. The slave states did not want the free states to end slavery which was the main portion of their economy. The free labor made them some of the richest people in the world and it was threated.  Fighting started in April of 1861 when the southern slave states started at Fort Sumpter in South Carolina.  Most of the battles were fought in the south, which was the largest part of the territory at that time. The southern slave states surrendered 1865

Alexander Dumas

Alexandre Dumas was born Dumas Davy de la Pailleterie , 24 July 1802 – 5 December 1870), also known as Alexandre Dumas père (where père is French for ‘father’, to distinguish him from his son Alexandre Dumas fils), was a French writer. His works have been translated into many languages and he is one of the most widely read French authors. Many of his historical novels of high adventure were originally published as serials, including The Count of Monte CristoThe Three MusketeersTwenty Years After and The Vicomte of Bragelonne: Ten Years Later.

Prolific in several genres, Dumas began his career by writing plays, which were successfully produced from the first. 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexandre_Dumas

Sissieretta Jones

Matilda Sissieretta Joyner Jones (January 5, 1868 or 1869 – June 24, 1933) was an American soprano. She sometimes was called “The Black Patti” in reference to Italian opera singer Adelina Patti. Jones’ repertoire included grand opera, light opera, and popular music. Trained at the Providence Academy of Music and the New England Conservatory of Music, Jones made her New York debut in 1888 at Steinway Hall, and four years later she performed at the White House for President Benjamin Harrison. She eventually sang for four consecutive presidents and the British royal family, and met with international success. Besides the United States and the West Indies, Jones toured in South America, Australia, India, southern Africa, and Europe.

The highest-paid African-American performer of her time, later in her career she founded the Black Patti Troubadours (later renamed the Black Patti Musical Comedy Company), a musical and acrobatic act made up of 40 jugglers, comedians, dancers and a chorus of 40 trained singers.[2] She remained the star of the Famous Troubadours for around two decades while they established their popularity in the principal cities of the United States and Canada, Jones retired from performing in 1915.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sissieretta_Jones

Ira Aldridge

Ira Frederick Aldridge (July 24, 1807 – August 7, 1867) was an American-born British actor, playwright, and theatre manager, known for his portrayal of Shakespearean characters. Born in New York City, Aldridge’s first professional acting experience was in the early 1820s with the African Grove Theatre troupe. Facing discrimination in America, he left in 1824 for England and made his debut at London’s Royal Coburg Theatre. As his career grew, his performances of Shakespeare’s classics eventually met with critical acclaim and he subsequently became the manager of Coventry’s Theatre Royal. From 1852, Aldridge regularly toured much of Continental Europe and received top honours from several heads of state. He died suddenly while on tour in Poland and is buried in Łódź.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ira_Aldridge

Art of the Month

1800

Nat Turner

Nat was born in October in 1800 in South Hampton County Virginia. He learned to read and write at a young age, grew up reading the Bible.  Later he began to preach to African Americans, with some of the Anglos also following him. He had the trust of many and was given permission to travel the area and preach to the enslaved around the county.

In August 1831 Nat led enslaved Virginians in rebellion in in South Hampton County Virginia where they killed around 65 people, mostly Caucasian. It lasted four days before it fell apart. A militia was sent to stop it. They killed more than 120 African Americans, some who had nothing to do with the rebellion.

Nat escaped for about 9 weeks until he was caught, tried and convicted. His story was written by the person who was supposed to defend him.  The author had little understanding of Nat’s situation as an enslaved person. He made Nat seem like a fanatic instead of a man held captive all of his life asked to preach the gospel of a sould freeing God.

American Civil War

Triggered by the election of Abraham Lincoln on his party’s platform of anti-slavery expansion, seven slave states succeeded from the union. The slave states did not want the free states to end slavery which was the main portion of their economy. The free labor made them some of the richest people in the world and it was threated.  Fighting started in April of 1861 when the southern slave states started at Fort Sumpter in South Carolina.  Most of the battles were fought in the south, which was the largest part of the territory at that time. The southern slave states surrendered 1865

Alexander Dumas

Alexandre Dumas was born Dumas Davy de la Pailleterie , 24 July 1802 – 5 December 1870), also known as Alexandre Dumas père (where père is French for ‘father’, to distinguish him from his son Alexandre Dumas fils), was a French writer. His works have been translated into many languages and he is one of the most widely read French authors. Many of his historical novels of high adventure were originally published as serials, including The Count of Monte CristoThe Three MusketeersTwenty Years After and The Vicomte of Bragelonne: Ten Years Later.

Prolific in several genres, Dumas began his career by writing plays, which were successfully produced from the first. 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexandre_Dumas

Sissieretta Jones

Matilda Sissieretta Joyner Jones (January 5, 1868 or 1869 – June 24, 1933) was an American soprano. She sometimes was called “The Black Patti” in reference to Italian opera singer Adelina Patti. Jones’ repertoire included grand opera, light opera, and popular music. Trained at the Providence Academy of Music and the New England Conservatory of Music, Jones made her New York debut in 1888 at Steinway Hall, and four years later she performed at the White House for President Benjamin Harrison. She eventually sang for four consecutive presidents and the British royal family, and met with international success. Besides the United States and the West Indies, Jones toured in South America, Australia, India, southern Africa, and Europe.

The highest-paid African-American performer of her time, later in her career she founded the Black Patti Troubadours (later renamed the Black Patti Musical Comedy Company), a musical and acrobatic act made up of 40 jugglers, comedians, dancers and a chorus of 40 trained singers.[2] She remained the star of the Famous Troubadours for around two decades while they established their popularity in the principal cities of the United States and Canada, Jones retired from performing in 1915.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sissieretta_Jones

Art of the Month

1800

Nat Turner

Nat was born in October in 1800 in South Hampton County Virginia. He learned to read and write at a young age, grew up reading the Bible.  Later he began to preach to African Americans, with some of the Anglos also following him. He had the trust of many and was given permission to travel the area and preach to the enslaved around the county.

In August 1831 Nat led enslaved Virginians in rebellion in in South Hampton County Virginia where they killed around 65 people, mostly Caucasian. It lasted four days before it fell apart. A militia was sent to stop it. They killed more than 120 African Americans, some who had nothing to do with the rebellion.

Nat escaped for about 9 weeks until he was caught, tried and convicted. His story was written by the person who was supposed to defend him.  The author had little understanding of Nat’s situation as an enslaved person. He made Nat seem like a fanatic instead of a man held captive all of his life asked to preach the gospel of a soul freeing God.

American Civil War

Triggered by the election of Abraham Lincoln on his party’s platform of anti-slavery expansion, seven slave states succeeded from the union. The slave states did not want the free states to end slavery which was the main portion of their economy. The free labor made them some of the richest people in the world and it was threated.  Fighting started in April of 1861 when the southern slave states started at Fort Sumpter in South Carolina.  Most of the battles were fought in the south, which was the largest part of the territory at that time. The southern slave states surrendered 1865.

Art of the Month

Tignon Law

By the 1700 The institution of slavery reached around the world. Captured Africans were not passive about the institution. They fought where they stood. In 1786 Governor Don Estevan Miro of New Orleans passed the Tignon Law that stated all Creole women of color must tie up their hair and dress as in the slave class whether they are slave or free. In trying to limit the standards of beauty to this section of the population, they shaped the way women of color would react for centuries.

Haiti Revolution

The Haitian Revolution was a successful insurrection by self-liberated slaves against French colonial rule in Saint-Domingue, now the sovereign state of Haiti. The revolt began on 22 August 1791, and ended in 1804 with the former colony’s independence.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haitian_Revolution

Phillis Wheatley

(c. 1753 – December 5, 1784) was an American author who is considered the first African-American author of a published book of poetry. Born in West Africa, she was sold into slavery at the age of seven or eight and transported to North America, where she was bought by the Wheatley family of Boston. After she learned to read and write, they encouraged her poetry when they saw her talent.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phillis_Wheatley

Olaudah Equiano

Olaudah Equiano was the son of a chief of the Igbo people in West Africa, but was seized and sold into slavery as a small boy. He was sold a several times and purchased his freedom in 1766. He was part of an abolitionist group called the Sons of Africa made of Africans living in Britain. In his autobiography of 1789, he looked back on life in his homeland, remembering it as “a charming fruitful vale.” He was a writer and abolitionist.

Sommerset Case

James Sommersett was the subject of a landmark legal case in Great Britain, which was the first major step in imposing limits on Trans-Atlantic African slavery. Sommersett was originally purchased in Virginia and had been bought to Britain by Stewart from Boston, Massachusetts in 1769.  He fled two years later. Sommersett’s cause was taken up by Granville Sharp, a member of Parliament and the leading abolitionist of his era.

At issue was whether a slave, even if owned in British Colonial America was by dint of residing in Britain still to be legally regarded as chattel or should be considered free. Francis Hargrave argued that by being on the soil of Great Britain, Sommersett could not remain enslaved.  On June 22, 1772 Lord Mansfield decided in Somerset v. Stewart that Sommersett was to be released since no English law sanctioned slavery in Great Britain.

The case also moved the debate over slavery to the British Parliament. Britain’s highest legislative body ended the Empire’s participation in the Trans Atlantic Slave Trade in 1807.

n.wikipedia.org/wiki/Somerset_v_Stewart

Art of the Month

Tignon Law

By the 1700 The institution of slavery reached around the world. Captured Africans were not passive about the institution. They fought where they stood. In 1786 Governor Don Estevan Miro of New Orleans passed the Tignon Law that stated all Creole women of color must tie up their hair and dress as in the slave class whether they are slave or free. In trying to limit the standards of beauty to this section of the population, they shaped the way women of color would react for centuries.

Haiti Revolution

The Haitian Revolution was a successful insurrection by self-liberated slaves against French colonial rule in Saint-Domingue, now the sovereign state of Haiti. The revolt began on 22 August 1791, and ended in 1804 with the former colony’s independence.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haitian_Revolution

Phillis Wheatley

Phillis Wheatley Peters, also spelled Phyllis and Wheatly (c. 1753 – December 5, 1784) was an American author who is considered the first African-American author of a published book of poetry.[2][3] Born in West Africa, she was sold into slavery at the age of seven or eight and transported to North America, where she was bought by the Wheatley family of Boston. After she learned to read and write, they encouraged her poetry when they saw her talent.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phillis_Wheatley